Digest of Articles - QST July 1993 (Long - 33k)

Digest of Articles - QST July 1993 (Long - 33k)

Post by William Van Hor » Wed, 13 Apr 1994 22:45:29


Following are digests of articles printed in the July, 1993 issue of
QST.  Such digests are being prepared for each issue of QST, and
posted periodically.  Subsequent issues will be posted one per week
until they "catch up" to the current date in mid-1994, thereafter

It is hoped that other hams will volunteer to post similar digests of
the other ham technical publications such as QEX, CQ, 73, COMMUNICATIONS
QUARTERLY, RTTY JOURNAL, et al.  Especially desirable would be digests
of publications in other countries, such as the RSGB RADIO COMMUNICA-
TIONS and ham magazines in Europe, Japan, Australia, and other countries
around the world.  We English speakers would especially enjoy them if
they were translated into our language, but they would also be valuable
additions to the world's knowledge if they were posted in the language
of origin.  Who knows?  Some bi-lingual ham somewhere might translate
them into English and re-post them.

Worldwide communications are getting better and better.  The time has
come to make the world's ham press available to all hams throughout the

The major value of digests is to give readers sufficient information to
decide whether to obtain a copy of the full text.  If any U.S. reader
wants a copy of an article in QST, please inquire of other hams in your
own neighborhood.  Many have collections of back issues.  Anyone who is
unsuccessful in finding a fellow ham with a collection should try every
library in the area, especially those at universities and technical
colleges.  If all else fails, a copy can be obtained from the ARRL
Technical Department, 225 Main St., Newington, CT 06111-1494 USA for a
fee of $3.00 per copy.  Remember, it is both cheaper and quicker to
obtain one locally.

Readers in most other countries can obtain copies from their own
national ham organizations, sometimes translated into their own
-------------------------------CUT HERE---------------------------------

COPYRIGHT NOTICE: Copyright to all the following material from QST
Magazine is held by the American Radio Relay League (ARRL), effective on
the date of issue.  Permission is granted for redistribution of the
following in its entirety, or in part, provided that this copyright
notice is not removed or altered and that proper attribution is made to
ARRL as publisher of QST, to the authors of the original articles, and
to W. E. "Van" Van Horne, W8UOF, author of this compilation.

                           TABLE OF CONTENTS

        (line number in parentheses - counting from CUT HERE line)


TA1:A Synchronous Detector for AM Transmissions                     (73)
TA2:Honey, I Shrunk the Antenna!                                   (127)
TA3:IROESON: An Infrared Optoelectronic Keyer                      (193)
TA4:Reverse-Polarity Protection for Your Gear                      (233)
TA5:Ironing Out Your Printed-Circuit Boards                        (264)


PR1:MFJ-9017 18-MHz QRP CW Transceiver                             (311)
PR2:PacComm PSK-1T Satellite Modem and TNC                         (337)


HK1:Improving the Heathkit HW-5400 Transceiver                     (382)
HK2:A Garden Hose as Cable Conduit                                 (391)
HK3:Relays Make Sure Mobile Radios are Really Off                  (401)
HK4:Re-centering the Ten-Tec Century/22 Audio Filter at 750-Hz     (410)
HK5:More on Winding Multifilar Toroids                             (418)
HK6:A Replacement Battery-Pack for the Santec ST-142 Hand-Held     (426)
HK7:A Fix for Wind-Fatigued Wires                                  (435)
HK8:Paddle in a Pill-Bottle                                        (447)


TC1:An Updated Tandem Match                                        (467)


FB1:Sporadic-E Causes, QST Apr 93                                  (485)


NHC1:Two 2-Meter Antennas                                          (501)
NHC2:The Doctor is IN                                              (518)
NHC3:The Fine Art of QSLing                                        (528)
NHC4:Finding My Niche in Ham Radio                                 (535)
NHC5:Technical Solutions in the Field                              (547)


RT1:Mobile Grounding                                               (563)
RT2:Hooked on Phonetics                                            (570)
RT3:What's a Net?                                                  (578)


GI1:10,500 Miles of Mobile CW on a Motorcycle                      (590)
GI2:An "Ocean Hopper" Reunion                                      (608)
GI3:Amateur Radio's Most Rewarding Activity                        (623)
GI4:Ham Radio as a Second Language                                 (637)


Title>TA1:A Synchronous Detector for AM Transmissions
Author>Vermasvuori, Jukka - OH2GF
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 28-33
Abstract>A construction article describing a synchronous detector for AM
reception.  It supplies a locally-generated carrier which eliminates the
severe distortion caused by selective fading when the strength of the
received carrier drops relative to the sidebands.

Digest>People who enjoy listening to foreign "shortwave" broadcasts, as
well as others, are frequently annoyed by the severe distortion that
occurs in conventional broadcast receivers when fading causes
overmodulation distortion due to the carrier strength falling below that
of the sidebands.  Mr. Vermasvuori has designed and built a synchronous
detector using a locally-generated beat-frequency oscillator (BFO),
synchronized with the received carrier, which remains at a constant
strength.  The same BFO is also useful since it allows the reception of
CW signals on a broadcast receiver.

Synchronous detection provides some other advantages, as well: no
signal-to-noise threshold; suppression of adjacent-channel splash;
rejection of synthesizer phase noise; low harmonic distortion in audio,
independent of signal level; and other desirable effects.

The system uses three integrated circuits that were originally designed
for use in FM receivers, plus a modest number of discrete components.
The author uses it with a Sangean ATS-808 "all-band" receiver, which is
also sold as the Radio Shack DX-380.  He built it into a long, narrow
metal box dimensioned to be attached to the underside of the receiver.
Because of the very high gain of the ICs, parts layout is somewhat
critical and signal leads are routed around the chassis through
small-diameter coax cable.  Since it is designed to operate with an i.f.
of 450-455 KHz., it can probably be used with almost any receiver that
has an i.f. in that range; with modifications it can no doubt be used
with any other superheterodyne receiver, as well.  The author notes that
his synchronous detector requires as little as 3 mV. of i.f., or 30 dB.
less gain ahead of the detector than conventional receivers require.
Hence, its use could simplify receiver construction.

In a side-bar, David Newkirk, WJ1Z, reported success in using the system
with a Drake SW-4A receiver and an ICOM IC-729 Transceiver.  He states
that he got good results whenever he was successful in getting
"interference-free i.f. drive".  He was not successful using it with a
Japan Radio Company JST-135HP transceiver because he was not able to
eliminate i.f. interference and could not take the time to analyze where
it was coming from.

Mr. Vermasvuori reports that his modified Sangean receiver works very
well for his purposes, as he demonstrated during a recent visit to the
USA.  From Massachusetts, he was able to follow Radio Finland's one-hour
daily SSB transmission beamed toward Western Europe on 15,330 KHz. "with
adequate signal quality".


Title>TA2:Honey, I Shrunk the Antenna!
Author>Newkirk, Rod - W9BRD
Source>QST Jul 1993
Abstract>Report on experiments with small loops for transmitting
antennas.  Included are loops with up to 4-turns.

Digest>The author describes the results of his experiments with
small loop antennas used for transmitting.  He defines "small loops" as
those with 1/8 wavelength of wire, or less.  His approach differs from
the many other articles published in the last few years about small
transmitting loops in that he is using 2-, 3-, and 4-turn loops.  He
made his loops square with the bottom- and top-sides horizontal.  A
capacitor is inserted in the center of the lower leg of each turn, all
capacitors of equal value except for one, which is variable for tuning.

His experiments started with a 40-meter antenna of a single-turn, 3-1/2
feet high and 4-1/2 feet wide, resonated with about 40-pf. capacitance
in the lower leg.  It was fed at the center of the top leg and showed a
resistive input impedance of approximately 5- or 6-ohms.  Then he
doubled the number of turns by using "zip-cord" for the two conductors,
and inserted another 40-pf. capacitor in a symmetrical location in the
second loop.  Now the input impedance measured approximately resistive
25-ohms.  After adding a third turn and capacitor, he found that the
impedance had risen to about 50-ohms and was a near-perfect match to
50-ohm coax.

The multi-turn loop performed as would be expected with such a high
indicated impedance.  In contrast to the single-loop antennas reported
in the literature, when fed with 100-watts of power at 40-meters, no
excessively high r.f. voltages or currents were observed.  Midget
capacitors designed for receiving use were adequate and the tuning
capacitor did not arc-over.  The author even reported that the
band-width can be made to approximate that of a normal half-wave dipole
if the three loops are slightly stagger-tuned.

Following such excellent results on 40-meters, he added a fourth turn,
with still the same dimensions, and tuned it to 80-meters.  Resonance at
3.6 MHz. required approximately 100 pf. in each of the four
capacitances.  At this frequency, the measured impedance was now about
18-ohms resistive, so the author fed it with a simple gamma-match.

Finally, Mr. Newkirk tuned the four-turn loop to 160-meters!  At that
wavelength, it is only 1/32-wavelength in circumference, although it
contains 1/8-wavelength of wire.  The capacitance of each of the
capacitors was 350 pf. to resonate at about 1.85 MHz.

As soon as the antenna was operable on each of the bands, he operated
with it and made numbers of QSOs, even though his shack is in his
ba***t and the loop antenna was about half below ground-level!  On
80-meter CW, he made contacts on the East Coast and west as far as
Arizona, from Chicago.  Running 40-watts on 160-meter CW, he had QSOs in
the East, South, and Midwest.

Finally, he tried the same loop on the higher frequencies.  He found
that a 2-turn loop works well on the 30- and 20-meter bands with 20 pf.
capacitors for 20-meters and somewhat higher for the 30-meter band.
Feed impedances in both cases are about 50-ohms.  For 17- and 15-meters,
he continued to use the 2-turn loop, but split each turn in both the top
and bottom legs with 15-pf. capacitors, and fed it in one of the
vertical legs.  Again, it matched the 50-ohm feedline well.

For proper operation on 10-meters, he cut back to a single loop, split
top and bottom with 12-pf. capacitors, again fed with 50-ohm cable at
the center of one of the side-legs.


Title>TA3:IROESON:An Infrared Optoelectronic Keyer
Author>Cebik, L. B. - W4RNL
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 36-39
Abstract>Construction of a keyer utilizing beams of light which are
interrupted with the fingers to form Morse code.

Digest>This same author wrote an article published in the February,
1992 QST entitled: "IROESK: An Infrared Optoelectronic Straight Key".
It described a straight key which was built using an infrared beam
between a light source and phototransistor detector; the operator closed
the keying contacts by interrupting the light beam with a finger.

In the present article, he extends the principal to provide two such
light beams which can be interrupted with fingers, one for dots and the
other for dashes.  In both cases, his intent is to remove most of the
physical effort in keying, especially for handicapped people or ones
suffering from arthritis.

In addition to the optoelectronic "switches", an integrated-circuit
(IC) chip and a number of discrete components are assembled on a small
printed-circuit board which is mounted, along with some switches and a
knob to form a complete keyer.

Mr. Cebik built his unit attractively using a combination of wood and
Plexiglas(TM).  When operated, the user manipulates it by using any two
fingers moving in vertical motions.  The fingers "tap" on a Plexiglas
shelf.  He also indicates that other models have been built in a
vertical assembly which is keyed with horizontal motions, more similar
to a bug or paddle.

The article contains complete wiring diagrams, parts lists, and
photographs of the horizontal (finger-tapping) model.  PC-board
templates, digrams, and a schematic of the vertical model are available
from ARRL Headquarters for a business-size SASE.  Address the request
to: Cebik IROESON Keyer PC-board Template, Technical Department
Secretary, ARRL, 225 Main Street, Newington, CT 06111.  Components,
PC-board, and other parts are available from FAR Circuits, 18N640 Field
Court, Dundee, IL 60118-9269.


Title>TA4:Reverse-Polarity Protection for Your Gear
Author>Covington, Michael A.
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 40-41
Abstract>Circuitry to protect electronic equipment from damage caused by
inadvertent reversal of the polarity of supplied power.

Digest>Much electronic equipment can be damaged or destroyed if the
power supply polarity is reversed.  The author shows several simple and
inexpensive applications of solid-state components that can provide
complete protection.

The first, and simplest, is a diode in series with the load.  The only
drawback to its use is that every silicon diode causes a voltage drop of
about 0.6 volts.  In most cases, this causes no problem unless the
supply voltage is low, in which case the drop is a large percentage of
the total.

If the series connection diode cannot be used, the next best approach is
to put the diode, with inverse polarity, in parallel with the load.
This assumes that there is a fuse or circuit-breaker in the power
supply.  Reverse polarity will "see" the diode as a direct short and
instantly "pop" the breaker, assuming that the diode has a higher
current rating than the breaker.  Care must be taken that the diode is
not so small as to "pop" before the breaker does!

Next, Mr. Covington shows applications of N-channel MOSFETS acting as
switches that will close only if the polarity is correct.  Finally, he
shows that a low-voltage-drop PNP voltage regulator provides inherent
reverse-polarity protection.

Title>TA5:Ironing Out Your Printed-Circuit Boards
Author>Grebenkemper, John - KI6WX
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 42-44
Abstract>A description of a simple and inexpensive way to apply patterns
onto PC-board material for etching.  A mirror-image of the pattern is
first printed on paper by a Xerox, or equivalent, printer.  It can be
transferred onto the copper foil by ironing it with a pressing iron.
Then the paper can be removed after soaking it overnight in water
containing a small amount of chlorine bleach.

Digest>Printed-circuit boards can be made in many different ways.  The
most satisfactory method is the photographic technique using a light-
sensitive coating that is developed like a photograph and etched.  But
for experimental or one-at-a-time projects, it is expensive and
time-consuming.  Mr. Grebenkemper shows a method that is quick and

He starts with a drawing or photograph of the desired pattern which may
be taken from a magazine article, or hand-drawn.  A copy is made on a
Xerox, or equivalent, machine.  The copy must be a "mirror-image",
which is conveniently made by copying on a transparency, turning it
upside-down, and recopying onto paper.

The "ink" that is deposited on the paper is made of particles of black
pigment in a binder, or "toner", that melts at elevated temperature.  It
can be transferred onto the copper foil on the PC-board blank if it is
placed face-down and heated from the rear with a home electric-iron.  It
melts at about 300-degrees F. (149-degrees C.)

After it is melted in contact with the copper foil, the paper, image,
and PC-board will all be stuck together.  The paper can be removed,
leaving the image on the copper, if one soaks it overnight in a solution
of water and chlorine-bleach.  When the paper is removed after soaking,
paper-fibers will be left sticking to the toner.  Most of them can be
removed with a soft brush.

Once the paper fibers are gone, the pattern should be inspected
carefully with a magnifier.  Any gaps or flaws must be repaired with a
"resist-pen". Finally, the board is etched in the normal manner.


     conductor: James W. Healy, NJ2L
                Sr. Asst. Technical Editor

Title>PR1:MFJ-9017 18-MHz QRP CW Transceiver
Author>Hale, Bruce S. - KB1MW
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 45-46
Abstract>Performance review of the MFJ-9017 transceiver.  It was found
to perform well.

Digest>MFJ Enterprises makes a line of QRP CW transceivers, each built
for a single band from 40- through 15-meters.  The author reviewed the
model built for the 18-MHz. WARC band.

The rig is very small, only 2.5 x 6.5 x 7.25 inches (63 x 163 x 181 mm.)
and weighs 1.8 pounds (0.8 kg.)  Its power output is "more than
4-watts", CW only.  Power requirements are 12-15 volts DC at 1 amp max
(transmitting), and 50 ma. (receive).  The rig is very simple.  Its
front panel has only 3 knobs: frequency, volume, and RIT.  There is also
a power switch and 2 LED indicators, for power-on and transmit.
Optional extra features are a self-contained keyer and a 700 Hz.
bandwidth audio filter.

The reviewer states: "This is a well-designed, well-built radio.  If
you've got an older rig that doesn't cover 18 MHz., this is a great way
to try the band (and QRP at the same time).  If you're looking for a rig
to take on your next vacation, think about one of the MFJ series."


Title>PR2:PSK-1T Satellite Modem and TNC
Author>Ford, Steve - WB8IMY
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 46-47
Abstract>Operational review of the PacComm PSK-1T Packet Modem and TNC.
It was found to perform well in both satellite and terrestial

Digest>The PSK-1T is designed for people who want to operate packet,
both on earth and via satellite.  Actually, PacComm has combined their
models PSK-1 satellite modem with their Tiny-2 TNC into a single
package.  In fact, they have not rewritten their operating manual; with
the unit, they supply two separate manuals, one for each of the two
units the package contains.  Details of installation depend upon the
user's specific equipment; the installation instructions in the manuals
are adequate.

In satellite operations with the 1200-bit/s packet satellites,
Manchester FSK is utilized in their 2-meter FM uplinks and phase-shift
keying (PSK) on the 70-cm. downlinks.  The PSK-1T software presents a
menu on the computer monitor and all controls can be operated through
the computer.

The reviewer states that the unit performs very well on weak signals so
that one can tune the satellite signal as soon as it appears over the
horizon, and it usually holds the signal throughout the pass.  He was
able to connect with OSCAR 20 and communicate with it reliably using an
uplink power of only 25-watts and an omnidirectional antenna.

After the satellite has passed, one can switch to terrestial packet by a
command from the computer, or from a front-panel switch.  The PSK-1t
functions well on both HF and VHF packet and includes a personal mailbox
on which others can leave messages.

In summary, the reviewer stated: "The PacComm PSK-1T is a good choice if
you want to be active on terrestial and satellite packet, switching
between the two in seconds."


     conductor: David Newkirk, WJ1Z
                Sr. Asst. Technical Editor

Title>HK1:Improving the Heathkit HW-5400 Transceiver
Author>Akimov, Paul - WA2RIA
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 48
Abstract>The writer gives wiring diagrams and detailed, step-by-step
instructions to make two modifications to the Heathkit rig.  Both are
meant to improve the sound quality of the audio.

Title>HK2:A Garden Hose as Cable Conduit
Author>Iocona, Louis J. - N2PKT
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 49
Abstract>The writer reports that he split an old garden-hose down the
middle and inserted several coax-cable lines in it, then fastened the
hose under the eaves of his roof.  This made a convenient and weather-
proof installation.

Title>HK3:Relays Make Sure Mobile Radios are Really Off
Author>Wells, Bill - K5DMY
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 49
Abstract>Contains a wiring diagram showing the use of 12-volt relays to
shut the power off to mobile equipment whenever the ignition of the
vehicle is turned off.

Title>HK4:Re-centering the Ten-Tec Century/22 Audio Filter at 750-Hz.
Author>Garrett, Don - WA9TGT
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 49
Abstract>How to change certain filter-tuning capacitors to change the CW

Title>HK5:More on Winding Multifilar Toroids
Author>Lau, Zack - KH6CP/1
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 49
Abstract>A way to wind bifilar transformers without the need for
color-coded wire.

Title>HK6:A Replacement Battery-Pack for the Santec ST-142 Hand-Held
Author>Forster, Bruce A. - N7QMY
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 49
Abstract>The writer identifies a Radio Shack battery pack ENERCELL 9.6 V
Ni-Cd Turbo Racing Battery Pack (No. 23-229) as a replacement for the
specified rig.

Title>HK7:A Fix for Wind-Fatigued Wires
Author>Buell, Norman S. - W6SJH
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 49
Abstract>Reinforcing fragile wire connections with plastic rods.

Digest>Mr. Buell solved a problem with his antenna.  Open-wire feeders
were breaking in the wind at the point where they were soldered to a
dipole antenna.  He solved the problem by reinforcing each feeder wire
with a 2-foot length of plastic rod.

Title>HK8:Paddle in a Pill-Bottle
Author>Kearman, Jim - KR1S
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 49
Abstract>Construction of a tiny, portable paddle for use with an
electronic keyer.

Digest>The writer wanted a small and light portable paddle for use with
his QRP rig.  He made one from two "micro" switches mounted in a pill
bottle and connected to a length of two-conductor cable with a plug on
the end.  He can hold it in one hand and actuate one switch with his
index finger, and the other with his thumb.


     conductor: Paul Pagel, N1FB
                Associate Technical Editor

Title>TC1:An Updated Tandem Match
Author>Grebenkemper, John - KI6WX
Source>QST Jul 1993
Abstract>Corrects errors in article in QST Jan 1988 and also the ARRL
Antenna Book, 16th Edition.

Digest>The Tandem Match directional wattmeter was described by the
author in a QST article in the January, 1987 issue.  Several corrections
appeared in the January, 1988 QST.  It was reprinted in the 16th Edition
of the ARRL Antenna Book, which also included an error.  In the current
letter, the author offers some updates to more modern components and
also corrects the mistakes from past printings.



Title>FB1:"Sporadic-E Causes", QST Apr 93
Author>Spokes, Neil - AB4YK
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 50
Abstract>In the second paragraph of p. 73, add the words "peaks and"
before the word "troughs", so that the sentence becomes: "...over at
least a decade and whose peaks and troughs were closely related...."



        The New Ham Companion is a regular section of QST. It features
articles of primary interest to newcomers to the hobby.

Title>NHC1:Two 2-Meter Antennas
Author>Bowles, Chester S. - AA1EX
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 62-64
Abstract>Simple and inexpensive 2-meter dipoles made from wire and PVC

Digest>The author shows dimensioned drawings and gives detailed
instructions for building 2-meter half-wave dipoles using PVC pipe and
fittings.  One of the antennas is for use at a home station and features
stiff, galvanized steel wire for each half of the antenna.  The other
model is for portable use.  It is identical to the former one except
that it uses flexible wire inside a piece of half-inch (13 mm. ID) PVC
tubing for each half of the dipole so that it can be easily assembled
and disassembled.

Title>NHC2:The Doctor is IN
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 65
Abstract>This is a regular feature in this section of the magazine.  It
is comprised of questions and answers of interest to newcomers.
Questions discussed this month regard: satellite operations, ionosphere
propagation, water in coax cables, and SWR/power meters.

Title>NHC3:The Fine Art of QSLing
Author>Ford, Steve - WB8IMY
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 66-69
Abstract>QSL cards and the operation of the ARRL QSL Bureaus.

Title>NHC4:Finding My Niche in Ham Radio
Author>Castaldo, Rick - KD1BR
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 70-71
Abstract>Experiences of a beginner in amateur radio.

Digest>The author relates his trepidations when he first received his
General Class license and his experiences as he met other hams, both in
person and on-the-air.  He describes all of the different activities,
operting modes, and sub-specialties of the hobby.

Title>NHC5:Technical Solutions in the Field
Author>Hurder, Luck - KY1T
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 72
Abstract>A description of the ARRL Field Organization by its deputy
manager.  He explains the positions of Technical Coordinator and
Technical Specialist, what they do and how to contact them.


These are short items, scattered among the articles in the NEW HAM
COMPANION section.

Title>RT1:Mobile Grounding
Author>Ford, Steve - WB8IMY
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 64
Abstract>Recommendations for grounding radio gear mounted in vehicles.

Title>RT2:Hooked on Phonetics
Author>Ford, Steve - WB8IMY
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 69
Abstract>The use of phonetics is explained.  A table of the modern,
approved list (Alfa, Bravo, Charlie, Delta) is included.

Title>RT3:What's a Net?
Author>Ford, Steve - WB8IMY
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 71
Abstract>Nets (short for "networks") are explained.  The need for a net
control station (NCS) to avoid confusion is emphasized.



Title>GI1:10,500 Miles of Mobile CW on a Motorcycle
Author>Brogdon, Al - K3KMO
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 21-25
Abstract>Operating Morse code while driving a motorcycle.

Digest>Mr. Brogdon, later to become Managing Editor of QST, relates his
experiences during a motorcycle trip when he and his 14-year old son
spent 32 days driving to Alaska and back.  Mounted between the
handlebars was the author's Kenwood TS-140 transceiver and a mobile
antenna was on the rear of the 'cycle.  There were two micro-switches on
a small aluminum plate that was bolted underneath one of the hand-grips
of the handlebars.  They were used to actuate a keyer as he operated CW
almost exclusively during the entire trip.  He reports that he routinely
drove 60-mph, keying at 30-wpm, while wearing gloves, and also keeping a
log, sometimes during rain!

Title>GI2:An "Ocean Hopper" Reunion
Author>Barthel, Randy W. - KF8TV
Source>QST Jul 1993, pp. 54-55

Digest>This article is a series of reminiscences by the author.  At age
13, he built a Knight-Kit "Ocean-Hopper" regenerative receiver but did
not go on to get a ham-license.  10-years later he again became
interested and obtained a novice license.  That time he built a
transmitter kit, the Ameco AC-1, and operated for a short time, but
again drifted away from radio.  Recently, 25-years later, he again
became interested and is now operating CW on 80- and 40-meters.

Title>GI3:Amateur Radio's Most Rewarding Activity
Author>Morris, Gary - N6QAF
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 56
Abstract>The joys of helping beginners.

Digest>This is a laudatory description of ham "Elmers"; i.e. the people
who take the time to help beginners get started in amateur radio. The
author emphasizes that it does not take a strong technical background
for any ham to help a newcomer.  He states that no pleasures of the
hobby can match the thrill of watching a youngster grow in understanding
and achievement, partially as a result of the Elmer's help.

Title>GI4:Ham Radio as a Second Language
Author>Huizinga, Pusun, WQ0U
Source>QST Jul 1993, p. 57
Abstract>A Korean-American woman relates how ham radio has helped her
overcome some of her homesickness and also to improve her English.