The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by australia.radio.broadcast.moderated » Thu, 29 Nov 2007 18:21:07

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

U.S. shortwave broadcasters consider themselves rebels - and are proud
of it.

by James Careless

Radio's renegades.

That's how many broadcasters view privately-owned U.S. shortwave radio
stations. They've got a point; when it comes to the conventions of
commercial AM/FM radio, this country's 25-odd shortwave stations are
anything but conventional.

In fact, the U.S. shortwave broadcast industry is sufficiently
different from domestic AM and FM that it has its own lobbying group,
the National Association of Shortwave Broadcasters (online at www.shortwave.org
). A look at its membership list reveals stations unknown to most U.S.
broadcasters, such as WMLK Assemblies of Yahweh, KAIJ Two If By Sea
Broadcasting Corp., and WRMI Radio Miami International.

Missing from the shortwave ownership list are names like Clear Channel
and Infinity. Most U.S. shortwave stations are owned by religious
groups, while a few others, such as WRMI and WBCQ, are commercially
owned.

Restricted access

Why is U.S. shortwave so different?

First, AM and FM are local or regional in coverage, while SW is
national or international, thanks to the way radio waves propagate in
the 5,000-30,000 kHz area of the spectrum. Like familiar AM signals at
night, amplitude-modulated shortwave signals literally bounce off the
ionosphere, allowing them to reach thousands of miles beyond the
horizon. However, shortwave signals do this all the time, depending on
which of the SW bands are used.
FCC-Authorized U.S. Shortwave Stations

KAIJ Dallas

Two If By Sea Broadcasting Corp.

KFBS Northern Mariana Islands, SA

Far East Broadcasting Co.

KHBN Medorn, Aimeliik, Palau

High Adventure Ministries

KIMF Pinon, N.M.

International Fellowship of Churches

KJES Vado, N.M.

Our Lady's Youth Center

KNLS Anchor Point, Alaska

World Christian Broadcasting Corp.

KSDA Agat, Guam

Adventist Broadcasting Service Inc.

KTBN Salt Lake City

Trinity Christian Center of Santa Ana Inc.

KTWR Agana, Guam

Trans World Radio Pacific

KVOH Rancho Simi, Calif.

High Adventure Ministries Inc.

KWHR Naalehu, Hawaii

LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

WBCQ Monticello, Maine

Allan H. Weiner

WEWN Vandiver, Ala.

Eternal Word Television Network Inc.

WGTG McCaysville, Ga.

Blue Ridge Communications Inc.

WHRA Greenbush, Maine

LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

WHRI Noblesville, Ind.

LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

WINB Red Lion, Pa.

World International Broadcasters Inc.

WJCR Millerstown, Ky.

World Wide Gospel Radio Inc.

WMLK Bethel, Pa.

Assemblies of Yahweh

WRMI Miami

Radio Miami International

WRNO New Orleans

Good News World Outreach

WSHB Furman, S.C.

Herald Broadcasting Syndicate Inc.

WTJC Newport, N.C.

Grace Baptist Church

WWBS Macon, Ga.

Charles C. Josey

WWCR Nashville, Tenn.

WNQM Inc.

WWFV McCaysville, Ga.

Blue Ridge Communications Inc.

WYFR Okeechobee, Fla.

Family Stations Inc.

Details: www.fcc.gov/ib/sand/neg/hf_web/stations.html

The rule of thumb: higher shortwave frequencies bounce best during the
day; lower SW frequencies work better at night. Combine this with
seasonal ionospheric variations and the sun's 11-year sunspot cycle,
which affects how well SW signals bounce, and one can see that
shortwave stations need a number of frequencies assigned to each of
them.

Second, in the United States, the SW bands are reserved for
international broadcasters.

"When the Voice of America was founded in 1947, it was prohibited from
broadcasting domestically, in order to prevent the government from
propagandizing to its citizens," says Larry Magne, editor in chief of
"Passport to World Band Radio."

"The FCC decided that if this rule applied to the VOA, it should also
apply to domestic shortwave broadcasters as well."

Fuzzy business model

However, according to NASB President and WRMI General Manager Jeff
White, the FCC's restriction has an important loophole.

"The current rules do not say SW stations cannot broadcast to the
U.S.," he said. "They say stations cannot broadcast programs that are
intended exclusively for an audience in the continental United
States."

As a result, U.S. shortwave broadcasters typically target countries
such as Canada and Mexico, with their signals coincidentally
blanketing any U.S. territory that happens to be in the way.

For instance, WRMI's 50 kW North American feed originates from a
Florida-based periodic yagi antenna pointed towards Vancouver at 317
degrees.

"With this heading, we manage to legally cover virtually all of the
continental United States," White said.

Then there's the issue of revenue. Although some U.S. shortwave
broadcasters - religious groups such as EWTN Global Catholic Radio and
Adventist World Radio, for example - don't count on making a profit,
others, like WWCR, WCBQ The Planet and WRMI, definitely do. But
although there are believed to be 600 million shortwave listeners
worldwide, including about 5 million in North America, no Arbitron-
style ratings service exists to report what they're listening to.

Without ratings, it is difficult to impossible to sell commercials. As
a result, profit-minded U.S. SW stations make their living by selling
airtime to whoever wants it. Typically, this tends to be religious or
political groups.

The religious programmers run the gamut from mainstream to fringe,
while political programmers range from Cuban dissidents to right-wing
militia groups. In some cases these programmers work live in the
station's studios. However, it's more typical for them to send in
prerecorded programs on cassette, CD or MiniDisc, or to send in their
shows by phone or, increasingly, over the Internet.

The cost? "We charge anywhere from $25 to $65 an hour, depending on
the time of day and the number of hours purchased," said Allan Weiner,
WBCQ owner and general manager. Based in Monticello, Maine, the
station uses three converted commercial/military transmitters, some
home-built antennas and a 1950s-vintage mobile home converted into a
studio building.

At WRMI in Miami, Jeff White sells airtime for $1 a minute. Meanwhile,
WWCR in Nashville, Tenn., charges anywhere from $15 for 4.5 minutes to
$160 for 59.5 minutes, depending on whether you're buying on a one-
day, weekly or Monday-through-Friday basis. With four 100 kW
transmitters - a single 50 kW transmitter is considered to be the bare
minimum by the FCC - WWCR has more reach and a more sophisticated
transmission/production plant than WCBQ or WRMI.

Thus, given the FCC's restriction on domestic broadcasting, the issues
of propagation, audio quality and static associated with amplitude-
modulated shortwave and the lack of a measurable audience, the
commercial SW market is not one for the faint-hearted.

Add the general public's lack of awareness of the medium - "People ask
me all the time how they can pick up Radio Miami International on
their AM/FM receivers," White said with a shrug - and one can see it's
a tough business.

"The handful of truly commercial stations may generate anywhere from
less than $200,000 a year to perhaps a few million," he added. "These
are not Clear Channel-type operations."

Paying the bills

These broadcasters are willing to put up with poor production quality
and content; this comes with the turf of selling airtime blocks. They
can tolerate downright weird shows.

"I remember one show where the guy was doing a chant to the angels,"
White said. "He just kept chanting the same thing over and over again
for 15 minutes."

In fact, U.S. SW broadcasters are willing to put up with almost
anything from their clients, as long as they pay their bills.

"It is still a free country and they have a right to say a lot of
things," said WWCR General Manager George McClintock.

"We pretty much let anyone say what they want," said Weiner. "Our
listeners demand that we be as open and free speech as possible. They
crave it. They demand it."

Besides, "The FCC doesn't really monitor the content on U.S.
shortwave," White said. "I don't think they see that as their mission
or concern. They are more worried about whether a station's technical
parameters are correct."

That said, U.S. shortwave broadcasters often suffer grief from their
clients' programming. Even radio's renegades have their limits.

For instance, WWCR learned that neo-Nazi Ernst Zundel was using his
airtime to deny the Holocaust. "We threw the program off," said
McClintock. Zundel had been broadcasting in German, and WWCR's
operators didn't understand what he was saying.

Even so, many Americans associate U.S. shortwave with far-right
broadcasts. This is ironic, given that most of what McClintock calls
"militia money" stopped flowing to shortwave broadcasters when the
dreaded year 2000 finally arrived. Apparently the New World Order's
"non-collapse," in McClintock's words, severely hurt the militias'
ability to solicit donations from listeners.

All in all, U.S. SW broadcasters operate in a strange, Twilight Zone
kind of world, but one that they relish. Passport's Magne believes
that U.S. shortwave broadcasters enjoy it so much that they don't want
the FCC to loosen its archaic restrictions on domestic shortwave.

"The truth is that they like it the way it is," he said. "If the rules
were changed, it could open the floodgates to more competition."

An unfair accusation? Not according to WRMI's White.

"We discussed changing the rules at the National Association of
Shortwave Broadcasters' convention a few years ago," he said. "In
fact, the FCC asked for our help in doing so. However, after some
discussion, a lot of people came to Magne's conclusion: that we're all
better off just leaving things as they are. After all, under the
current regime, the FCC pretty much leaves us alone. If the rules were
changed, then they might get serious about enforcing them."

"If it works for you, leave it alone," said McClintock. Granted, the
FCC shortwave rules are "as loose as a goose," he said. But "If it
ain't broke, don't fix it."
...

read more »

 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by IBOCcroc » Thu, 29 Nov 2007 23:44:02


On Nov 28, 4:21 am, "australia.radio.broadcast.moderated  -"

> The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

> U.S. shortwave broadcasters consider themselves rebels - and are proud
> of it.

> by James Careless

> Radio's renegades.

> That's how many broadcasters view privately-owned U.S. shortwave radio
> stations. They've got a point; when it comes to the conventions of
> commercial AM/FM radio, this country's 25-odd shortwave stations are
> anything but conventional.

> In fact, the U.S. shortwave broadcast industry is sufficiently
> different from domestic AM and FM that it has its own lobbying group,
> the National Association of Shortwave Broadcasters (online atwww.shortwave.org
> ). A look at its membership list reveals stations unknown to most U.S.
> broadcasters, such as WMLK Assemblies of Yahweh, KAIJ Two If By Sea
> Broadcasting Corp., and WRMI Radio Miami International.

> Missing from the shortwave ownership list are names like Clear Channel
> and Infinity. Most U.S. shortwave stations are owned by religious
> groups, while a few others, such as WRMI and WBCQ, are commercially
> owned.

> Restricted access

> Why is U.S. shortwave so different?

> First, AM and FM are local or regional in coverage, while SW is
> national or international, thanks to the way radio waves propagate in
> the 5,000-30,000 kHz area of the spectrum. Like familiar AM signals at
> night, amplitude-modulated shortwave signals literally bounce off the
> ionosphere, allowing them to reach thousands of miles beyond the
> horizon. However, shortwave signals do this all the time, depending on
> which of the SW bands are used.
> FCC-Authorized U.S. Shortwave Stations

> KAIJ Dallas

> Two If By Sea Broadcasting Corp.

> KFBS Northern Mariana Islands, SA

> Far East Broadcasting Co.

> KHBN Medorn, Aimeliik, Palau

> High Adventure Ministries

> KIMF Pinon, N.M.

> International Fellowship of Churches

> KJES Vado, N.M.

> Our Lady's Youth Center

> KNLS Anchor Point, Alaska

> World Christian Broadcasting Corp.

> KSDA Agat, Guam

> Adventist Broadcasting Service Inc.

> KTBN Salt Lake City

> Trinity Christian Center of Santa Ana Inc.

> KTWR Agana, Guam

> Trans World Radio Pacific

> KVOH Rancho Simi, Calif.

> High Adventure Ministries Inc.

> KWHR Naalehu, Hawaii

> LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

> WBCQ Monticello, Maine

> Allan H. Weiner

> WEWN Vandiver, Ala.

> Eternal Word Television Network Inc.

> WGTG McCaysville, Ga.

> Blue Ridge Communications Inc.

> WHRA Greenbush, Maine

> LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

> WHRI Noblesville, Ind.

> LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

> WINB Red Lion, Pa.

> World International Broadcasters Inc.

> WJCR Millerstown, Ky.

> World Wide Gospel Radio Inc.

> WMLK Bethel, Pa.

> Assemblies of Yahweh

> WRMI Miami

> Radio Miami International

> WRNO New Orleans

> Good News World Outreach

> WSHB Furman, S.C.

> Herald Broadcasting Syndicate Inc.

> WTJC Newport, N.C.

> Grace Baptist Church

> WWBS Macon, Ga.

> Charles C. Josey

> WWCR Nashville, Tenn.

> WNQM Inc.

> WWFV McCaysville, Ga.

> Blue Ridge Communications Inc.

> WYFR Okeechobee, Fla.

> Family Stations Inc.

> Details:www.fcc.gov/ib/sand/neg/hf_web/stations.html

> The rule of thumb: higher shortwave frequencies bounce best during the
> day; lower SW frequencies work better at night. Combine this with
> seasonal ionospheric variations and the sun's 11-year sunspot cycle,
> which affects how well SW signals bounce, and one can see that
> shortwave stations need a number of frequencies assigned to each of
> them.

> Second, in the United States, the SW bands are reserved for
> international broadcasters.

> "When the Voice of America was founded in 1947, it was prohibited from
> broadcasting domestically, in order to prevent the government from
> propagandizing to its citizens," says Larry Magne, editor in chief of
> "Passport to World Band Radio."

> "The FCC decided that if this rule applied to the VOA, it should also
> apply to domestic shortwave broadcasters as well."

> Fuzzy business model

> However, according to NASB President and WRMI General Manager Jeff
> White, the FCC's restriction has an important loophole.

> "The current rules do not say SW stations cannot broadcast to the
> U.S.," he said. "They say stations cannot broadcast programs that are
> intended exclusively for an audience in the continental United
> States."

> As a result, U.S. shortwave broadcasters typically target countries
> such as Canada and Mexico, with their signals coincidentally
> blanketing any U.S. territory that happens to be in the way.

> For instance, WRMI's 50 kW North American feed originates from a
> Florida-based periodic yagi antenna pointed towards Vancouver at 317
> degrees.

> "With this heading, we manage to legally cover virtually all of the
> continental United States," White said.

> Then there's the issue of revenue. Although some U.S. shortwave
> broadcasters - religious groups such as EWTN Global Catholic Radio and
> Adventist World Radio, for example - don't count on making a profit,
> others, like WWCR, WCBQ The Planet and WRMI, definitely do. But
> although there are believed to be 600 million shortwave listeners
> worldwide, including about 5 million in North America, no Arbitron-
> style ratings service exists to report what they're listening to.

> Without ratings, it is difficult to impossible to sell commercials. As
> a result, profit-minded U.S. SW stations make their living by selling
> airtime to whoever wants it. Typically, this tends to be religious or
> political groups.

> The religious programmers run the gamut from mainstream to fringe,
> while political programmers range from Cuban dissidents to right-wing
> militia groups. In some cases these programmers work live in the
> station's studios. However, it's more typical for them to send in
> prerecorded programs on cassette, CD or MiniDisc, or to send in their
> shows by phone or, increasingly, over the Internet.

> The cost? "We charge anywhere from $25 to $65 an hour, depending on
> the time of day and the number of hours purchased," said Allan Weiner,
> WBCQ owner and general manager. Based in Monticello, Maine, the
> station uses three converted commercial/military transmitters, some
> home-built antennas and a 1950s-vintage mobile home converted into a
> studio building.

> At WRMI in Miami, Jeff White sells airtime for $1 a minute. Meanwhile,
> WWCR in Nashville, Tenn., charges anywhere from $15 for 4.5 minutes to
> $160 for 59.5 minutes, depending on whether you're buying on a one-
> day, weekly or Monday-through-Friday basis. With four 100 kW
> transmitters - a single 50 kW transmitter is considered to be the bare
> minimum by the FCC - WWCR has more reach and a more sophisticated
> transmission/production plant than WCBQ or WRMI.

> Thus, given the FCC's restriction on domestic broadcasting, the issues
> of propagation, audio quality and static associated with amplitude-
> modulated shortwave and the lack of a measurable audience, the
> commercial SW market is not one for the faint-hearted.

> Add the general public's lack of awareness of the medium - "People ask
> me all the time how they can pick up Radio Miami International on
> their AM/FM receivers," White said with a shrug - and one can see it's
> a tough business.

> "The handful of truly commercial stations may generate anywhere from
> less than $200,000 a year to perhaps a few million," he added. "These
> are not Clear Channel-type operations."

> Paying the bills

> These broadcasters are willing to put up with poor production quality
> and content; this comes with the turf of selling airtime blocks. They
> can tolerate downright weird shows.

> "I remember one show where the guy was doing a chant to the angels,"
> White said. "He just kept chanting the same thing over and over again
> for 15 minutes."

> In fact, U.S. SW broadcasters are willing to put up with almost
> anything from their clients, as long as they pay their bills.

> "It is still a free country and they have a right to say a lot of
> things," said WWCR General Manager George McClintock.

> "We pretty much let anyone say what they want," said Weiner. "Our
> listeners demand that we be as open and free speech as possible. They
> crave it. They demand it."

> Besides, "The FCC doesn't really monitor the content on U.S.
> shortwave," White said. "I don't think they see that as their mission
> or concern. They are more worried about whether a station's technical
> parameters are correct."

> That said, U.S. shortwave broadcasters often suffer grief from their
> clients' programming. Even radio's renegades have their limits.

> For instance, WWCR learned that neo-Nazi Ernst Zundel was using his
> airtime to deny the Holocaust. "We threw the program off," said
> McClintock. Zundel had been broadcasting in German, and WWCR's
> operators didn't understand what he was saying.

> Even so, many Americans associate U.S. shortwave with far-right
> broadcasts. This is ironic, given that most of what McClintock calls
> "militia money" stopped flowing to shortwave broadcasters when the
> dreaded year 2000 finally arrived. Apparently the New World Order's
> "non-collapse," in McClintock's words, severely hurt the militias'
> ability to solicit donations from listeners.

> All in all, U.S. SW broadcasters operate in a strange, Twilight Zone
> kind of world, but one that they relish. Passport's Magne believes
> that U.S. shortwave broadcasters enjoy it so much that they don't want
> the FCC to loosen its archaic restrictions on domestic shortwave.

> "The truth is that they like it the way it is," he said. "If the rules
> were changed, it could open the floodgates to more competition."

> An unfair accusation? Not according to WRMI's White.

> "We discussed changing the rules at the National Association of
> Shortwave Broadcasters'

...

read more »

 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by tom k in L.A » Fri, 30 Nov 2007 04:26:24


> On Nov 28, 4:21 am, "australia.radio.broadcast.moderated  -"


> > The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

> > U.S. shortwave broadcasters consider themselves rebels - and are proud
> > of it.

> > by James Careless

> > Radio's renegades.

> > That's how many broadcasters view privately-owned U.S. shortwave radio
> > stations. They've got a point; when it comes to the conventions of
> > commercial AM/FM radio, this country's 25-odd shortwave stations are
> > anything but conventional.

> > In fact, the U.S. shortwave broadcast industry is sufficiently
> > different from domestic AM and FM that it has its own lobbying group,
> > the National Association of Shortwave Broadcasters (online atwww.shortwave.org
> > ). A look at its membership list reveals stations unknown to most U.S.
> > broadcasters, such as WMLK Assemblies of Yahweh, KAIJ Two If By Sea
> > Broadcasting Corp., and WRMI Radio Miami International.

> > Missing from the shortwave ownership list are names like Clear Channel
> > and Infinity. Most U.S. shortwave stations are owned by religious
> > groups, while a few others, such as WRMI and WBCQ, are commercially
> > owned.

> > Restricted access

> > Why is U.S. shortwave so different?

> > First, AM and FM are local or regional in coverage, while SW is
> > national or international, thanks to the way radio waves propagate in
> > the 5,000-30,000 kHz area of the spectrum. Like familiar AM signals at
> > night, amplitude-modulated shortwave signals literally bounce off the
> > ionosphere, allowing them to reach thousands of miles beyond the
> > horizon. However, shortwave signals do this all the time, depending on
> > which of the SW bands are used.
> > FCC-Authorized U.S. Shortwave Stations

> > KAIJ Dallas

> > Two If By Sea Broadcasting Corp.

> > KFBS Northern Mariana Islands, SA

> > Far East Broadcasting Co.

> > KHBN Medorn, Aimeliik, Palau

> > High Adventure Ministries

> > KIMF Pinon, N.M.

> > International Fellowship of Churches

> > KJES Vado, N.M.

> > Our Lady's Youth Center

> > KNLS Anchor Point, Alaska

> > World Christian Broadcasting Corp.

> > KSDA Agat, Guam

> > Adventist Broadcasting Service Inc.

> > KTBN Salt Lake City

> > Trinity Christian Center of Santa Ana Inc.

> > KTWR Agana, Guam

> > Trans World Radio Pacific

> > KVOH Rancho Simi, Calif.

> > High Adventure Ministries Inc.

> > KWHR Naalehu, Hawaii

> > LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

> > WBCQ Monticello, Maine

> > Allan H. Weiner

> > WEWN Vandiver, Ala.

> > Eternal Word Television Network Inc.

> > WGTG McCaysville, Ga.

> > Blue Ridge Communications Inc.

> > WHRA Greenbush, Maine

> > LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

> > WHRI Noblesville, Ind.

> > LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

> > WINB Red Lion, Pa.

> > World International Broadcasters Inc.

> > WJCR Millerstown, Ky.

> > World Wide Gospel Radio Inc.

> > WMLK Bethel, Pa.

> > Assemblies of Yahweh

> > WRMI Miami

> > Radio Miami International

> > WRNO New Orleans

> > Good News World Outreach

> > WSHB Furman, S.C.

> > Herald Broadcasting Syndicate Inc.

> > WTJC Newport, N.C.

> > Grace Baptist Church

> > WWBS Macon, Ga.

> > Charles C. Josey

> > WWCR Nashville, Tenn.

> > WNQM Inc.

> > WWFV McCaysville, Ga.

> > Blue Ridge Communications Inc.

> > WYFR Okeechobee, Fla.

> > Family Stations Inc.

> > Details:www.fcc.gov/ib/sand/neg/hf_web/stations.html

> > The rule of thumb: higher shortwave frequencies bounce best during the
> > day; lower SW frequencies work better at night. Combine this with
> > seasonal ionospheric variations and the sun's 11-year sunspot cycle,
> > which affects how well SW signals bounce, and one can see that
> > shortwave stations need a number of frequencies assigned to each of
> > them.

> > Second, in the United States, the SW bands are reserved for
> > international broadcasters.

> > "When the Voice of America was founded in 1947, it was prohibited from
> > broadcasting domestically, in order to prevent the government from
> > propagandizing to its citizens," says Larry Magne, editor in chief of
> > "Passport to World Band Radio."

> > "The FCC decided that if this rule applied to the VOA, it should also
> > apply to domestic shortwave broadcasters as well."

> > Fuzzy business model

> > However, according to NASB President and WRMI General Manager Jeff
> > White, the FCC's restriction has an important loophole.

> > "The current rules do not say SW stations cannot broadcast to the
> > U.S.," he said. "They say stations cannot broadcast programs that are
> > intended exclusively for an audience in the continental United
> > States."

> > As a result, U.S. shortwave broadcasters typically target countries
> > such as Canada and Mexico, with their signals coincidentally
> > blanketing any U.S. territory that happens to be in the way.

> > For instance, WRMI's 50 kW North American feed originates from a
> > Florida-based periodic yagi antenna pointed towards Vancouver at 317
> > degrees.

> > "With this heading, we manage to legally cover virtually all of the
> > continental United States," White said.

> > Then there's the issue of revenue. Although some U.S. shortwave
> > broadcasters - religious groups such as EWTN Global Catholic Radio and
> > Adventist World Radio, for example - don't count on making a profit,
> > others, like WWCR, WCBQ The Planet and WRMI, definitely do. But
> > although there are believed to be 600 million shortwave listeners
> > worldwide, including about 5 million in North America, no Arbitron-
> > style ratings service exists to report what they're listening to.

> > Without ratings, it is difficult to impossible to sell commercials. As
> > a result, profit-minded U.S. SW stations make their living by selling
> > airtime to whoever wants it. Typically, this tends to be religious or
> > political groups.

> > The religious programmers run the gamut from mainstream to fringe,
> > while political programmers range from Cuban dissidents to right-wing
> > militia groups. In some cases these programmers work live in the
> > station's studios. However, it's more typical for them to send in
> > prerecorded programs on cassette, CD or MiniDisc, or to send in their
> > shows by phone or, increasingly, over the Internet.

> > The cost? "We charge anywhere from $25 to $65 an hour, depending on
> > the time of day and the number of hours purchased," said Allan Weiner,
> > WBCQ owner and general manager. Based in Monticello, Maine, the
> > station uses three converted commercial/military transmitters, some
> > home-built antennas and a 1950s-vintage mobile home converted into a
> > studio building.

> > At WRMI in Miami, Jeff White sells airtime for $1 a minute. Meanwhile,
> > WWCR in Nashville, Tenn., charges anywhere from $15 for 4.5 minutes to
> > $160 for 59.5 minutes, depending on whether you're buying on a one-
> > day, weekly or Monday-through-Friday basis. With four 100 kW
> > transmitters - a single 50 kW transmitter is considered to be the bare
> > minimum by the FCC - WWCR has more reach and a more sophisticated
> > transmission/production plant than WCBQ or WRMI.

> > Thus, given the FCC's restriction on domestic broadcasting, the issues
> > of propagation, audio quality and static associated with amplitude-
> > modulated shortwave and the lack of a measurable audience, the
> > commercial SW market is not one for the faint-hearted.

> > Add the general public's lack of awareness of the medium - "People ask
> > me all the time how they can pick up Radio Miami International on
> > their AM/FM receivers," White said with a shrug - and one can see it's
> > a tough business.

> > "The handful of truly commercial stations may generate anywhere from
> > less than $200,000 a year to perhaps a few million," he added. "These
> > are not Clear Channel-type operations."

> > Paying the bills

> > These broadcasters are willing to put up with poor production quality
> > and content; this comes with the turf of selling airtime blocks. They
> > can tolerate downright weird shows.

> > "I remember one show where the guy was doing a chant to the angels,"
> > White said. "He just kept chanting the same thing over and over again
> > for 15 minutes."

> > In fact, U.S. SW broadcasters are willing to put up with almost
> > anything from their clients, as long as they pay their bills.

> > "It is still a free country and they have a right to say a lot of
> > things," said WWCR General Manager George McClintock.

> > "We pretty much let anyone say what they want," said Weiner. "Our
> > listeners demand that we be as open and free speech as possible. They
> > crave it. They demand it."

> > Besides, "The FCC doesn't really monitor the content on U.S.
> > shortwave," White said. "I don't think they see that as their mission
> > or concern. They are more worried about whether a station's technical
> > parameters are correct."

> > That said, U.S. shortwave broadcasters often suffer grief from their
> > clients' programming. Even radio's renegades have their limits.

> > For instance, WWCR learned that neo-Nazi Ernst Zundel was using his
> > airtime to deny the Holocaust. "We threw the program off," said
> > McClintock. Zundel had been broadcasting in German, and WWCR's
> > operators didn't understand what he was saying.

> > Even so, many Americans associate U.S. shortwave with far-right
> > broadcasts. This is ironic, given that most of what McClintock calls
> > "militia money" stopped flowing to shortwave broadcasters when the
> > dreaded year 2000 finally arrived. Apparently the New World Order's
> > "non-collapse," in McClintock's words, severely hurt the militias'
> > ability to solicit donations from listeners.

> > All in all, U.S. SW broadcasters operate in a strange, Twilight Zone
> > kind of world, but one that they relish. Passport's Magne believes

...

read more »

 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by dxAc » Fri, 30 Nov 2007 04:41:53



> > On Nov 28, 4:21 am, "australia.radio.broadcast.moderated  -"


> > > The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

> > > U.S. shortwave broadcasters consider themselves rebels - and are proud
> > > of it.

> > > by James Careless

> > > Radio's renegades.

> > > That's how many broadcasters view privately-owned U.S. shortwave radio
> > > stations. They've got a point; when it comes to the conventions of
> > > commercial AM/FM radio, this country's 25-odd shortwave stations are
> > > anything but conventional.

> > > In fact, the U.S. shortwave broadcast industry is sufficiently
> > > different from domestic AM and FM that it has its own lobbying group,
> > > the National Association of Shortwave Broadcasters (online atwww.shortwave.org
> > > ). A look at its membership list reveals stations unknown to most U.S.
> > > broadcasters, such as WMLK Assemblies of Yahweh, KAIJ Two If By Sea
> > > Broadcasting Corp., and WRMI Radio Miami International.

> > > Missing from the shortwave ownership list are names like Clear Channel
> > > and Infinity. Most U.S. shortwave stations are owned by religious
> > > groups, while a few others, such as WRMI and WBCQ, are commercially
> > > owned.

> > > Restricted access

> > > Why is U.S. shortwave so different?

> > > First, AM and FM are local or regional in coverage, while SW is
> > > national or international, thanks to the way radio waves propagate in
> > > the 5,000-30,000 kHz area of the spectrum. Like familiar AM signals at
> > > night, amplitude-modulated shortwave signals literally bounce off the
> > > ionosphere, allowing them to reach thousands of miles beyond the
> > > horizon. However, shortwave signals do this all the time, depending on
> > > which of the SW bands are used.
> > > FCC-Authorized U.S. Shortwave Stations

> > > KAIJ Dallas

> > > Two If By Sea Broadcasting Corp.

> > > KFBS Northern Mariana Islands, SA

> > > Far East Broadcasting Co.

> > > KHBN Medorn, Aimeliik, Palau

> > > High Adventure Ministries

> > > KIMF Pinon, N.M.

> > > International Fellowship of Churches

> > > KJES Vado, N.M.

> > > Our Lady's Youth Center

> > > KNLS Anchor Point, Alaska

> > > World Christian Broadcasting Corp.

> > > KSDA Agat, Guam

> > > Adventist Broadcasting Service Inc.

> > > KTBN Salt Lake City

> > > Trinity Christian Center of Santa Ana Inc.

> > > KTWR Agana, Guam

> > > Trans World Radio Pacific

> > > KVOH Rancho Simi, Calif.

> > > High Adventure Ministries Inc.

> > > KWHR Naalehu, Hawaii

> > > LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

> > > WBCQ Monticello, Maine

> > > Allan H. Weiner

> > > WEWN Vandiver, Ala.

> > > Eternal Word Television Network Inc.

> > > WGTG McCaysville, Ga.

> > > Blue Ridge Communications Inc.

> > > WHRA Greenbush, Maine

> > > LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

> > > WHRI Noblesville, Ind.

> > > LeSea Broadcasting Corp.

> > > WINB Red Lion, Pa.

> > > World International Broadcasters Inc.

> > > WJCR Millerstown, Ky.

> > > World Wide Gospel Radio Inc.

> > > WMLK Bethel, Pa.

> > > Assemblies of Yahweh

> > > WRMI Miami

> > > Radio Miami International

> > > WRNO New Orleans

> > > Good News World Outreach

> > > WSHB Furman, S.C.

> > > Herald Broadcasting Syndicate Inc.

> > > WTJC Newport, N.C.

> > > Grace Baptist Church

> > > WWBS Macon, Ga.

> > > Charles C. Josey

> > > WWCR Nashville, Tenn.

> > > WNQM Inc.

> > > WWFV McCaysville, Ga.

> > > Blue Ridge Communications Inc.

> > > WYFR Okeechobee, Fla.

> > > Family Stations Inc.

> > > Details:www.fcc.gov/ib/sand/neg/hf_web/stations.html

> > > The rule of thumb: higher shortwave frequencies bounce best during the
> > > day; lower SW frequencies work better at night. Combine this with
> > > seasonal ionospheric variations and the sun's 11-year sunspot cycle,
> > > which affects how well SW signals bounce, and one can see that
> > > shortwave stations need a number of frequencies assigned to each of
> > > them.

> > > Second, in the United States, the SW bands are reserved for
> > > international broadcasters.

> > > "When the Voice of America was founded in 1947, it was prohibited from
> > > broadcasting domestically, in order to prevent the government from
> > > propagandizing to its citizens," says Larry Magne, editor in chief of
> > > "Passport to World Band Radio."

> > > "The FCC decided that if this rule applied to the VOA, it should also
> > > apply to domestic shortwave broadcasters as well."

> > > Fuzzy business model

> > > However, according to NASB President and WRMI General Manager Jeff
> > > White, the FCC's restriction has an important loophole.

> > > "The current rules do not say SW stations cannot broadcast to the
> > > U.S.," he said. "They say stations cannot broadcast programs that are
> > > intended exclusively for an audience in the continental United
> > > States."

> > > As a result, U.S. shortwave broadcasters typically target countries
> > > such as Canada and Mexico, with their signals coincidentally
> > > blanketing any U.S. territory that happens to be in the way.

> > > For instance, WRMI's 50 kW North American feed originates from a
> > > Florida-based periodic yagi antenna pointed towards Vancouver at 317
> > > degrees.

> > > "With this heading, we manage to legally cover virtually all of the
> > > continental United States," White said.

> > > Then there's the issue of revenue. Although some U.S. shortwave
> > > broadcasters - religious groups such as EWTN Global Catholic Radio and
> > > Adventist World Radio, for example - don't count on making a profit,
> > > others, like WWCR, WCBQ The Planet and WRMI, definitely do. But
> > > although there are believed to be 600 million shortwave listeners
> > > worldwide, including about 5 million in North America, no Arbitron-
> > > style ratings service exists to report what they're listening to.

> > > Without ratings, it is difficult to impossible to sell commercials. As
> > > a result, profit-minded U.S. SW stations make their living by selling
> > > airtime to whoever wants it. Typically, this tends to be religious or
> > > political groups.

> > > The religious programmers run the gamut from mainstream to fringe,
> > > while political programmers range from Cuban dissidents to right-wing
> > > militia groups. In some cases these programmers work live in the
> > > station's studios. However, it's more typical for them to send in
> > > prerecorded programs on cassette, CD or MiniDisc, or to send in their
> > > shows by phone or, increasingly, over the Internet.

> > > The cost? "We charge anywhere from $25 to $65 an hour, depending on
> > > the time of day and the number of hours purchased," said Allan Weiner,
> > > WBCQ owner and general manager. Based in Monticello, Maine, the
> > > station uses three converted commercial/military transmitters, some
> > > home-built antennas and a 1950s-vintage mobile home converted into a
> > > studio building.

> > > At WRMI in Miami, Jeff White sells airtime for $1 a minute. Meanwhile,
> > > WWCR in Nashville, Tenn., charges anywhere from $15 for 4.5 minutes to
> > > $160 for 59.5 minutes, depending on whether you're buying on a one-
> > > day, weekly or Monday-through-Friday basis. With four 100 kW
> > > transmitters - a single 50 kW transmitter is considered to be the bare
> > > minimum by the FCC - WWCR has more reach and a more sophisticated
> > > transmission/production plant than WCBQ or WRMI.

> > > Thus, given the FCC's restriction on domestic broadcasting, the issues
> > > of propagation, audio quality and static associated with amplitude-
> > > modulated shortwave and the lack of a measurable audience, the
> > > commercial SW market is not one for the faint-hearted.

> > > Add the general public's lack of awareness of the medium - "People ask
> > > me all the time how they can pick up Radio Miami International on
> > > their AM/FM receivers," White said with a shrug - and one can see it's
> > > a tough business.

> > > "The handful of truly commercial stations may generate anywhere from
> > > less than $200,000 a year to perhaps a few million," he added. "These
> > > are not Clear Channel-type operations."

> > > Paying the bills

> > > These broadcasters are willing to put up with poor production quality
> > > and content; this comes with the turf of selling airtime blocks. They
> > > can tolerate downright weird shows.

> > > "I remember one show where the guy was doing a chant to the angels,"
> > > White said. "He just kept chanting the same thing over and over again
> > > for 15 minutes."

> > > In fact, U.S. SW broadcasters are willing to put up with almost
> > > anything from their clients, as long as they pay their bills.

> > > "It is still a free country and they have a right to say a lot of
> > > things," said WWCR General Manager George McClintock.

> > > "We pretty much let anyone say what they want," said Weiner. "Our
> > > listeners demand that we be as open and free speech as possible. They
> > > crave it. They demand it."

> > > Besides, "The FCC doesn't really monitor the content on U.S.
> > > shortwave," White said. "I don't think they see that as their mission
> > > or concern. They are more worried about whether a station's technical
> > > parameters are correct."

> > > That said, U.S. shortwave broadcasters often suffer grief from their
> > > clients' programming. Even radio's renegades have their limits.

> > > For instance, WWCR learned that neo-Nazi Ernst Zundel was using his
> > > airtime to deny the Holocaust. "We threw the program off," said
> > > McClintock. Zundel had been broadcasting in German, and WWCR's
> > > operators didn't

...

read more »

 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by David Eduard » Fri, 30 Nov 2007 06:41:42



Quote:

> i think US shortwave is a travesty.  terrible showing of our country
> to the world as religious fanatics.  terrible-- i hate it and wish
> there were more intelligent US content broadcast.

Who would pay for it? We already have the constantly downsizing VOA for
that...
 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by RHF » Fri, 30 Nov 2007 16:36:57


-
-  This looks like mostly religious shit!
-

IBOC Crock -Yes you are religious about your SHIT ! ~ RHF
 .

 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by Frank Dresse » Sat, 01 Dec 2007 05:16:18



Quote:

> i think US shortwave is a travesty.  terrible showing of our country
> to the world as religious fanatics.  terrible-- i hate it and wish
> there were more intelligent US content broadcast.

Are you going to do anything about what's bothering you?

Frank Dresser

 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by tom k in L.A » Sat, 01 Dec 2007 08:44:24




> > i think US shortwave is a travesty.  terrible showing of our country
> > to the world as religious fanatics.  terrible-- i hate it and wish
> > there were more intelligent US content broadcast.

> Are you going to do anything about what's bothering you?

> Frank Dresser

it would be good if US shortwave stations would sell big blocks of
time directly to Deutsche Welle, BBC, VoR, NHK, Radio Prague, etc.
then at least it would be intelligent programming.
 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by RHF » Sat, 01 Dec 2007 12:23:58





> > > i think US shortwave is a travesty.  terrible showing of our country
> > > to the world as religious fanatics.  terrible-- i hate it and wish
> > > there were more intelligent US content broadcast.

> > Are you going to do anything about what's bothering you?

> > Frank Dresser

> it would be good if US shortwave stations would sell big blocks of
> time directly to Deutsche Welle, BBC, VoR, NHK, Radio Prague, etc.
> then at least it would be intelligent programming.

Do like Canada does on CBC Radio One's
"CBC Radio Overnight" Program

Broadcast Schedule : http://www.cbc.ca/overnight/schedule.html
* CKZN from St John's, NL on 6160 kHz {24/7}
* CKZU from Vancouver, BC on 6160 kHz {24/7}

"CBC Radio Overnight" Program - Weekday Schedule
12:05 a.m. Sirius or BBC W/S
1:05 a.m. Radio Netherlands
2:05 a.m. Radio Sweden & Radio Australia
3:05 a.m. Channel Africa & BBC W/S
4:05 a.m. Deutsche Welle & Radio Polonia
5:05 a.m. Radio Australia, Radio Prague, Deutsche Welle
& Voice Of Russia

Require the majority of US 'Educational' FM Radio
Stations to Broadcast 3-Hours of International
Shortwave Radio News per Night between 12 Mid-Night
and 6 AM in the Morning.

~ RHF
 .

 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by Telamo » Sat, 01 Dec 2007 18:04:04





> > i think US shortwave is a travesty.  terrible showing of our country
> > to the world as religious fanatics.  terrible-- i hate it and wish
> > there were more intelligent US content broadcast.

> Are you going to do anything about what's bothering you?

He could always listen to WBCQ. Oh, wait a minute... that won't work.

--
Telamon
Ventura, California

 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by Telamo » Sat, 01 Dec 2007 18:08:50

In article






> > m...

> > > i think US shortwave is a travesty.  terrible showing of our country
> > > to the world as religious fanatics.  terrible-- i hate it and wish
> > > there were more intelligent US content broadcast.

> > Are you going to do anything about what's bothering you?

> > Frank Dresser

> it would be good if US shortwave stations would sell big blocks of
> time directly to Deutsche Welle, BBC, VoR, NHK, Radio Prague, etc.
> then at least it would be intelligent programming.

Just because the US religious broadcasters don't have what you want does
not make them unintelligent.

I'm not interested in listening to relays from transmitters in our own
country. It kind of ruins the whole idea of SW for me.

--
Telamon
Ventura, California

 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by Davi » Sat, 01 Dec 2007 22:58:02


> In article






>>> m...

>>>> i think US shortwave is a travesty.  terrible showing of our country
>>>> to the world as religious fanatics.  terrible-- i hate it and wish
>>>> there were more intelligent US content broadcast.
>>> Are you going to do anything about what's bothering you?

>>> Frank Dresser
>> it would be good if US shortwave stations would sell big blocks of
>> time directly to Deutsche Welle, BBC, VoR, NHK, Radio Prague, etc.
>> then at least it would be intelligent programming.

> Just because the US religious broadcasters don't have what you want does
> not make them unintelligent.

> I'm not interested in listening to relays from transmitters in our own
> country. It kind of ruins the whole idea of SW for me.

There are 2 kinds of SWLs.  One kind enjoys other cultures.  One kind
doesn't.
 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by Alex » Sun, 02 Dec 2007 01:18:05

Since I don't live in the US, I find these kind of stations rather
interesting and jolly good fun to listen to; of course I am entirely aware
that they do not represent the views of the average US citizen, and at
many times they are quite the "crackpot fringe". I don't think that any
reasonably sophisticated European listener, at least, could think
otherwise.

But I, certainly, have a great deal of fun listening to fire-and-brimstone
pastors and the "apocalypse now, hoard-gold-and-buy-guns" broadcasts. It's
miles and miles away from commercial FM, and isn't that the whole point of
the SWL hobby?

My other interests are Tropical Band and anything from South America
(since my wife is from Brazil!)

Alex

Quote:> There are 2 kinds of SWLs.  One kind enjoys other cultures.  One kind
> doesn't.

 
 
 

The Odd World of U.S. Shortwave

Post by RHF » Sun, 02 Dec 2007 05:22:17



> > In article






> >>> m...

> >>>> i think US shortwave is a travesty.  terrible showing of our country
> >>>> to the world as religious fanatics.  terrible-- i hate it and wish
> >>>> there were more intelligent US content broadcast.
> >>> Are you going to do anything about what's bothering you?

> >>> Frank Dresser
> >> it would be good if US shortwave stations would sell big blocks of
> >> time directly to Deutsche Welle, BBC, VoR, NHK, Radio Prague, etc.
> >> then at least it would be intelligent programming.

> > Just because the US religious broadcasters don't have what you want does
> > not make them unintelligent.

> > I'm not interested in listening to relays from transmitters in our own
> > country. It kind of ruins the whole idea of SW for me.

-
- There are 2 kinds of SWLs.  
- One kind enjoys other cultures.
- One kind doesn't.
-

David,

Make that Three Kinds of Shortwave Listners (SWLs) :

1 - One Kind Enjoys 'other' Cultures and is a Shortwave
Listener (SWL) who likes to listen to the Programs from
International Boradcasters or Their Families Ethno-Cultural
Homeland.

2 - Another Kind Searches for News and Information from
the Source; and Un-Biased News and Information with a
Different Perspective; and they use the Shortwave Radio
as a means of doing so.

3 - Plus the Kind that are Shortwave Radio DXers; and
are into : The Art; The Challenge; and The Technology
of Seeking Out those Hard-to-Find and Hard-to-Hear
Shortwave Radio Signals that only a few get to Hear
from the Far Corners of the World.

. . . and some Shortwave Radio Listeners (SWLs) enjoy
doing all three kinds of Shortwave Radio Listening.

WHICH KIND OT SHORTWAVE LISTENER ARE YOU ?

FWIW - I am a 2-1-3 Kind of Shortwave Radio Listener (SWL).

i want to know ~ RHF
 .